Article https://sapphiredragonorchids.com/index.php/ en What "really" is the Coerulea Color From? https://sapphiredragonorchids.com/index.php/blog/what-really-coerulea-color <span>What &quot;really&quot; is the Coerulea Color From?</span> <div class="field field--name-field-images field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/2020-05/Header%20Image.png" width="1280" height="320" alt="coeruleas" /> </div> </div> <span><span>Rob Shepherd</span></span> <span>Sun, 05/31/2020 - 03:21</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>What is the coerulea color form in Phalaenopsis?  I see a lot of comments these days about what is a coerulea and what is not a coerulea, and using being loosely determined by what other pigments are and are not being expressed. Ultimately I think we are looking at this incorrectly and we need to redefine what a coerulea form is.</p><p>In the genus Phalaenopsis, there are no blue pigments.  There are a range of green, yellow, orange, magenta and violet pigments.   It's the combination of these pigments that gives us the full range of colors that we see in Phalaenopsis.   While coeruleas are sometimes referred to as "blue" Phalaenopsis, in reality they are a violet in color.  But what actually makes them this violet color?</p><p>There are three different pigments in Phalaenopsis called Anthocyanins that produce the range of colors from light pink, magenta, purple, and violet.  Yet only one of these three pigments gives us the violet "coerulea" color.  We refer to that pigment as Anthocyanin C, the third Anthocyanin.  When Anthocyanin A and/or B are also expressed in the flower, it is no longer a violet color and starts to go to more of a purple or very dark magenta.  So a coerulea form is very simply, the absence of expression of Anthocyanin A and B in the flower with only Anthocyanin C present.  Other pigments will always be present, even in what appears to be a completely white flower there will often be some green and/or yellow pigments.   This process is a mutation in the pigment production pathway where Anthocyanin's A &amp; B are turned off and in some cases completely deleted from the pathway.</p><p>So what I want to propose is that a coerulea form is strictly defined by the absence of Anthocyanin A and B and expression of Anthocyanin C.   It does not matter if other pigments are present or not, and to what level of saturation they appear in the flower.</p><p>With that line of thinking some of the cultivars of P. tetraspis f. brunneola would actually be defined as coerulea.  There are other hybrids that will appear peach to brown, that would also be defined as coerulea because the only Anthocyanin being expressed is Anthocyanin C. </p><p>For a hybridizer, I believe this distinction is very important.  What we care about with coeruleas is simply, is there a mutation that is blocking Anthocyanin A and B and/or genetically there is only a pathway for Anthocyanin C?   For example in the case of the tetraspis cultivars 'Sue's Coffee' and "Jia Ho Coffee'; the answer is yes, the Anthocyanin blocking mutation is present and only Anthocyanin C is present.</p><p>With that in mind and to further illustrate this concept, I would classify the following example cultivars as coerulea even though the flowers do not appear as the traditional violet coerulea color to the eye:</p> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_0389_cropped480.jpg" class=&quot;img-rounded&quot; alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> P. tetraspis &#039;Jia Ho Coffee&#039; </div> </div> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_2959cropped480.jpg" class=&quot;img-rounded&quot; alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> P. Yellow Angel </div> </div> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_2976_cropped480.jpg" alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> P. Yellow Angel </div> </div> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_8933_480.jpg" class=&quot;img-rounded&quot; alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> P. Penang Jewel &#039;Peach Parfait&#039; </div> </div> <p>I have a longer article in progress attempting to further define the coerulea form and put in place some common terminology to help with describing the different coeruleas.  But thought I would get this early/short description posted to gauge everyone's reaction.</p><p>Best, Rob</p> </div> <div class="field-name-field-category"> <a href="/index.php/category/article" hreflang="und">Article</a> </div> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <section> <ul class="commentlist"> </ul> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <h3 class="title slim"> Leave a Reply </h3> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=162&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="VOhAbVmTjShBF_ttR2Dro60MnCRVZ4QlgoYvEwuz_CY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Sun, 31 May 2020 00:21:50 +0000 Rob Shepherd 162 at https://sapphiredragonorchids.com Hybridizers Notebook - Staying Focused when there are More Options than Time, a look back at 2018/2019 https://sapphiredragonorchids.com/index.php/blog/hybridizers-notebook-staying-focused-when-there-are-more-options-time-look-back-20182019 <span> Hybridizers Notebook - Staying Focused when there are More Options than Time, a look back at 2018/2019 </span> <div class="field field--name-field-images field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/2020-04/louise_sdoroyal_yellowangel2.jpg" width="690" height="192" alt="header" /> </div> </div> <span><span>Rob Shepherd</span></span> <span>Wed, 04/29/2020 - 19:09</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div class = 'container ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle'> <p>Originally Published: December 24, 2019</p><p>I periodically try to write a retrospective article that recounts some of the progress and challenges that have happened over the last few years.  It's been a number of years since I have  done this, so this article is long overdue.  While I started writing this as a mini-article, it ended up taking on a life of it's own and frankly took much longer to write than I was planning.   So ironically there is an element of the impact of time going by within this article where the status of things were actually changing over the months as this was being written.  So my apologies if this is a bit difficult to follow.  I started writing this in mid-Feb 2019 and well, it's almost been a year later.  *Gasp*  </p><p>Looking back on 2018 (and now 2019) turned into a reflection back on the last 16 years of breeding coerulea Phalaenopsis and how little progress I have made over the last few years.  2018 was fraught with the realization that I was horribly behind and the year ended with a desperate attempt to catch up on lab work, getting new crosses done and repotting in the greenhouse.  Some years I've produced lots of crosses, some years I've produced none, some years I find myself blooming out all magenta flowers, then some years a really special cross blooms coerulea.  On the best of years, a cross blooms out that answers a fundamental question or helps verify a theory about the genetics of the coerulea color form that has eluded me for over a decade now.   2018 and 2019 did have a few successes, so the last couple of years were not a total loss.  But it was still a bit disheartening to look back at the last couple of years to see how far behind I had gotten.</p><p> </p> </div> <div class = 'container ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle'> <div class = 'col-xs-6 col-sm-6 col-md-6 col-lg-6'> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_1744_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> Phal. Sapphire&#039;s Angel and Phal. Louis Burns 4n </div> </div> </div> <div class = 'col-xs-6 col-sm-6 col-md-6 col-lg-6'> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_0583_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> Phal. Little Blue Bird (Kenneth Schubert x pulcherrima) </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class = 'container ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle'> <p><span><span><span><span>I've had a lot of ups and downs over the years. Some years have been especially bad.  The last few years my day job has been s</span></span></span><span><span><span>o busy that my hybridizing has suffered</span></span></span><span><span><span>.  I've had some crosses sitting in the lab for over 4 years; flasks covered in dust with orchid seedlings waiting for some att</span></span></span><span><span><span>ention to restart their growth.  It's heart breaking to realize you have lost two or more years of progress and crosses.  That realization was a bit of wake-up call and along with more normal work hours has given me the motivation to get caught up and refocus in 2019  and going into 2020.</span></span></span></span></p><p><span><span><span>A couple of things have changed since I first started breeding coeruleas but none has been more impactful than the shear number of different options that we now have with coerulea breeding.  When I started there were less than 10 different coerulea species</span></span></span> <span><span><span><span>and</span></span></span></span> <span><span><span>hybrids in total to work with, and of those, only four were easily obtainable.  Now we have access to so many different and unique coerulea Phalaenopsis that it is all too easy to fall into a trap of going toothpick crazy and trying to make every interesting potential cross.   </span></span></span><span><span><span>That shotgun approach was logistically feasible 10 years ago, now it's just completely impossible to deal with because of high volume of options.   </span></span></span></p><p> </p> </div> <div class = 'container ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle'> <div class = 'col-xs-6 col-sm-6 col-md-6 col-lg-6'> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_1966_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> Phal. Louis Burns 4n selection </div> </div> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_1974_cropped400.jpg" alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> Phal. CTL Vio Michollens </div> </div> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_0724_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> Phal. Sapphire&#039;s Violitz &#039;082314&#039; </div> </div> </div> <div class = 'col-xs-6 col-sm-6 col-md-6 col-lg-6'> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_1979_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> Phal. YangYang Bluebird </div> </div> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_1969_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> Phal. Louis Burns 4n selection </div> </div> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_1103_corrected_cropped.jpg" alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> Phal. Yellow Angel var indigo &#039;031817A&#039; </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class = 'container ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle'> <div class = 'col-xs-4 col-sm-4 col-md-4 col-lg-4'> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_0444_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> Phal. Little Blue Bird selection </div> </div> </div> <div class = 'col-xs-4 col-sm-4 col-md-4 col-lg-4'> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_1468_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> Phal. Sapphire&#039;s Little Steve selection </div> </div> </div> <div class = 'col-xs-4 col-sm-4 col-md-4 col-lg-4'> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_0640_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> <div class="description"> Phal. Purple Martin v. indigo &#039;Sapphire&#039;s Pride&#039; AM/AOS </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class = 'container ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle'> <p>The huge number of options has lead to the ongoing need to prioritize; how does one decide which crosses to make and focus on?  So many options, so many potential breeding lines, so many potential new directions....   I have to constantly internalize that my time is very limited, so realistically I can only handle producing 20 to 30 crosses in a year and even with that I risk running out of space in the lab and greenhouse.  Granted in a good year I make 200 or more crosses and 10 to 20% of those produce viable seed pods.   So in many ways this self limits the number of crosses produced. 2018 turned out to be a bit of an exception; in February 2019 I had almost 60 different crosses actively growing in the lab and at least 40 more viable pods in the greenhouse that needed to be harvested over 2 to 6 months. At my scale it's just not feasible to produce this volume of crosses on a regular basis.  </p><p>So the questions, <em><strong>"What should I focus on?"</strong></em> and <strong><em>"What is actually important to get done in a given year?"</em></strong> are becoming very necessary to deal with.  With so many options on the table, I really struggle with staying focused.  There is that word, <strong>"focus"</strong>.  Even as I wrote this, I looked at my "Crosses TBD This Week" list and I had 17 crosses listed there. Given I had something like 40 close to mature pods in the greenhouse at that time, I really should not be making 17 more crosses.</p><p> </p> </div> <div class = 'image_overlay ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_1980_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> </div> <div class = 'container ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle'> <p><span><span><span><span>What I have found is it becomes more and more important to have clear goals and</span></span></span> <span><span><span>strategies</span></span></span><span><span><span> in order to maintain focus and be able to scope down the potential work.   This helps guide the decisions that ultimately allow you to stay focused on the tasks that are going to work towards achieving your goals.  I know I'm sounding like some corporate "motivational" speaker right now.  But I've found myself needing to apply some of these thought processes and work habits to my own hybridizing program.  With coerulea b</span></span></span><span><span><span>reeding there have been so many questions that needed to be answered to really know what path would work to achieve any specific goal.  In many cases the only way to answer those questions was to make lots of different crosses.  So the potential permutations and total volume quickly became unrealistic to sustain. The only feasible approach is to stay focused and constantly reduce the scope of what I'm going to try to get done in a give year.  The hardest part of all of this is my own breeding program has produced so many different lines of breeding that I actually can't continue moving everything I have created forward.  It's like having 4 children and having to decided which 2 you are going to send to college.  No one wants to make that decision. </span></span></span></span></p><p><span><span><span>So I keep going back to my goals...  My high level goal continues to be working towards producing larger, fuller form coeruleas with higher flower count with an end goal of producing a tetraploid standard form coerulea Phalaenopsis.   I would like to think I'm closer to making a big improvement in flower size, but so far every attempt to introduce standard form phal characteristics has resulted in failure.  I know much more now than I knew even five years ago.  New learning's keep surfacing every year; based on new results in 2017 and 2018 I have been forced to yet again rethink the approach for crosses that would allow me to hybridize with something as simple as Phal. aphrodite.  So the high level goals stay the same, but unfortunately the strategy and tactics to achieve them continues to change.</span></span></span></p><p><span><span><span>Part of being able to stay focused,</span></span></span> <span><span><span>making</span></span></span><span><span><span> sense of the data I have and being able to weed through all the possible crosses is really about staying organized.   I use multiple organization tools day to day.  I have started using a online planning program call Trello to keep track of crosses I want to make.  </span></span></span></p><p> </p> </div> <div class = 'image_overlay ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/TrelloOrchids.jpg" alt="" title=""> </div> <div class = 'container ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle'> <p><span><span><span><span>It easily allows me to organize crosses by priority, keep up with crosses that I need to make in the current week and crosses that need attention in the lab.  This really helps with staying focused as I can prioritize crosses and use prioritized lists to determine which crosses I'm going to make next.  I can then</span></span></span> <span><span><span>also use that prioritization to determine which crosses in the lab I really need to put more time and energy into.  </span></span></span><span><span><span> I still use a database to keep track of all my crosses, but so far that database has</span></span></span> <span><span><span>not been integral to the pre-planning stages.  I</span></span></span><span><span><span>n the future I</span></span></span> <span><span><span>still may develop a module for my database that</span></span></span> <span><span><span>facilitates</span></span></span><span><span><span> cross planning, but tools I am currently using work as they are so it's a lower priority.  Prior to ever putting anything in Trello I often work through multi-generation lines of breeding on paper that are related to different strategies that I believe will help achieve specific breeding goals.  So my workflow has become this</span></span></span><span><span><span>:</span></span></span></span></p><ol class="list"> <li> <p><span><span><span>Identify individual goals and work through the blockers for achieving that goal.</span></span></span></p> </li> <li> <p><span><span><span>Plan out crosses and multi-generation lines of breeding on "paper".  (In my case digital paper, I use a program called Evernote so that I can have the information on multiple devises and I'm writing this article in it right now.)</span></span></span></p> </li> <li> <p><span><span><span>Block out strategic priorities and individual crosses that need to be made in Trello.</span></span></span></p> </li> <li> <p><span><span><span>Constantly prioritize the crosses to be made and maintain a consolidated list of what crosses need to be made next.</span></span></span></p> </li> <li> <p><span><span><span>Record crosses that are made in my hand written Hybridizers Notebook.</span></span></span></p> </li> <li> <p><span><span><span>Create database entries in My Orchid Vault (MOV) once a cross is harvested and goes into the lab.  From that point forward all of the record keeping for a given cross goes into MOV.</span></span></span></p> </li></ol><p><span><span><span>Looking forward into 2020, my goals really have changed very little from years past.  There have been minor tweaks and refinements.  My high level primary goals are currently as follows:</span></span></span></p><ul class="list"> <li> <p><span><span><span>Work towards creating large flowered (standard form) tetraploid coerulea Phalaenopsis.</span></span></span></p> </li> <li> <p><span><span><span>Continue to improve the color and saturation of coerulea Phalaenopsis.</span></span></span></p> </li> <li> <p><span><span><span>Create fuller form novelty complex coerulea hybrids with increased size.</span></span></span></p> </li> <li> <p><span><span><span>Create higher flower count novelty complex coerulea hybrids.</span></span></span></p> </li> <li> <p><span><span><span>Create additional tetraploid coerulea hybrids.</span></span></span></p> </li> <li> <p><span><span><span>Create coerulea multiflora's (pot plants) with larger and higher flower count.</span></span></span></p> </li> <li> <p><span><span><span>Continue to line breed and improve coerulea species.</span></span></span></p> </li> <li> <p><span><span><span>Create new and novel color forms with coerulea and other color pigments. </span></span></span></p> </li></ul><p><span><span><span>This is still a lot and frankly covers too many areas to maintain any real focus.  Often multiple goals apply to the same lines of breeding which further complicates the potential strategies and tactics needed to reach these outcomes.  Never the less, these are still all goals that are part of the foundation of my breeding program. </span></span></span></p><p><span><span><span>No retrospective is complete without looking at what was actually accomplished during that period</span></span></span><span><span><span>.  During the last couple of years I got so far behind on labwork that I did not have many new crosses blooming out from 2017 to 2018.  I only had 5 or 6 new crosses bloom out during those two years and only 3 were actually coerulea.   Luckily one cross ended up adding more information to the list of important</span></span></span> <span><span><span>learning's</span></span></span><span><span><span> that will help with future coerulea hybridizing.</span></span></span></p><p> </p> </div> <div class = 'ui-sortable-handle content-block frame frame-shadow ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle' style = 'margin-bottom: 30px;'> <h5><em><strong>Sapphire's Violet Sherbet (Kenneth Schubert X Sapphire's Violitz)</strong></em></h5><p>was what I considered to be long shot cross.  In this cross, you have standard coerulea violacea, coerulea pulcherrima and indigo violacea.  Traditionally it has been impossible to produce coeruleas out of any crosses where either coeruelea violacea and/or coerulea pulcherrima were crossed with an indigo violacea. The mutation that causes the coerulea color form is different in these two groups and has always resulted in the mutation being fixed and 100% magenta/pink flowers produced.    So I basically had low expectations for this cross, but it turned out to be ground breaking.</p> <div class = 'col-xs-6 col-sm-6 col-md-6 col-lg-6'> <div class = 'image_overlay'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_0401_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> </div> </div> <div class = 'col-xs-6 col-sm-6 col-md-6 col-lg-6'> <div class = 'image_overlay'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_0293_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> </div> </div> <p>The first couple of seedlings bloomed out dark magenta and I assumed the cross was going to be a failure.  About 6 months after the first seedlings bloomed, the first coeruleas started flowering and I realized that this cross was going to produce some really interesting color forms.  There were two breakthroughs with this cross:  </p><p>One: This was the first time a cross that included standard violacea, pulcherrima coerulea and indigo violacea has produced a coerulea form flower.   So basically there was something different about this cross that kept the mutation in place that blocks the production of the pink and magenta color pigments.  (Anthocyanin's A and B)</p><p>Two: It produced 50% standard color form (magenta) and 50% coerulea color form.  It's always a good day when I start to see this type of result, it means the color inheritance in the cross is now following a pattern consistent with standard Mendelian genetics.   This greatly increases predictability when making hybrids if you can rely on that standard inheritance model. Most of the time, this is not the case with coerulea hybrids.</p><p>So Sapphire's Violet Sherbet was a great data point and validation for some of the work I've been doing to work through techniques to improve the stability and reliability of coerulea breeding. </p> </div> <div class = 'ui-sortable-handle content-block frame frame-shadow ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle' style = 'margin-bottom: 30px;'> <h5><em><strong>SDO Blue Heaven (Louise Burns X violacea) </strong></em></h5><p>was basically what was expected from this cross.  This is 3rd generation line breeding continuing to go back to indigo violacea to increase flower size and color.     Some of the resulting seedlings had extremely saturated color.  These seem to be very compact plants and as was expected, a lower flower count than Louise Burns.    These plants are in bloom for 7 to 8 months out of the year.  I feel like this cross has gone about as far as it makes sense to go breeding back to violacea, but it should be useful going forward in other crosses.</p> <div class = 'image_overlay'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_6839_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> </div> </div> <div style = 'margin-bottom: 30px;' class = 'ui-sortable-handle content-block frame frame-shadow ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle'> <h5><strong><em>Sapphire's Violet Jewel (Sapphire's Little Steve X Sapphire's Violitz)</em></strong></h5><p>is another cross that mostly produced what was expected.   I was hoping that Sapphire's Violitz would have helped improve the form more than it did.  Instead the form is about the same as Equalacea, but with larger flowers and strong vigorous plants.  It's technically an improvement on some levels over Sapphire's Little Steve, but it really brought the cross back to being like Equalacea.  It probably has some uses working towards multi-flora crosses, but really was not a significant improvement of any kind other than having some new genetics in the cross with Tzu Chiang Tetralitz in the background.  That alone may make this cross more useful for future hybridizing. </p> <div class = 'image_overlay'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_0602_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> </div> </div> <div style = 'margin-bottom: 30px;' class = 'ui-sortable-handle content-block frame frame-shadow ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle'> <h5><em><strong>Louis Burns 4n (Equalacea 4n x violacea 4n):</strong></em></h5><p>I also produced a lovely tetraploid strain of P. Louis Burns produced from one of my tetraploid Equalaceas and a tetraploid indigo violacea.  I'm currently growing out a large batch of these with hopes of being able to get them to AOS judging.  The next generation of tetraploid breeding from this strain is currently in the lab.  These are extremely vigorous plants, so I'm excited to see where this is going to go.</p> <div class = 'col-xs-8 col-sm-8 col-md-8 col-lg-8'> <div class = 'image_overlay'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_1981_600.jpg" alt="" title=""> </div> </div> <div class = 'col-xs-4 col-sm-4 col-md-4 col-lg-4'> <div class = 'image_overlay'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_2070_cropped_400.jpg" alt="" title=""> </div> </div> <p> </p><p> </p><p> </p> </div> <div class = 'ui-sortable-handle content-block frame frame-shadow ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle ui-sortable-handle' style = 'margin-bottom: 30px;'> <h5><em><strong>Equestris var cyanochilus line breeding:</strong> </em></h5><p>I have been slowly working on trying to improve the color saturation in the sepals and petals of equestris var cyanochilus. This has not be a really high priority project for me, so I've just been fitting in crosses as I have time. This year I bloomed out a new 3rd generation cross that is showing some incremental progress and suggests that eventually we can get to a fully saturated coerulea equestris.</p> <div class = 'col-xs-8 col-sm-8 col-md-8 col-lg-8'> <div class = 'caption'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_2602_cropped.jpg" alt="" title=""> </div> </div> <div class = 'col-xs-4 col-sm-4 col-md-4 col-lg-4'> <div class = 'image_overlay'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_2605_cropped.jpg" alt="" title=""> </div> </div> <p>I took these photos with my phone, so the color is not very accurate.  In real life this flower is more violet and not as pink as it appears in the photo.  But you can see the improvement in color saturation as compared to equestris 'Violet Eyes'. </p> </div> <div class = 'ui-sortable-handle'><p>2019 has been a little light on new hybrids blooming out, but with the high volume of crosses going into the lab and coming out of the lab right now; 2020 and beyond should be really great years with lots of progress.  </p><p>But there has been one really exciting development this year... I set out to remake George Vasquez and hopefully create a coerulea form many years ago. While technically it's not a true George Vasquez, my cross SDO Royal Dragon (Fintje Kunriawati x violacea) has started blooming out some coeruleas.  This cross is |LS|(violacea X pulchra) X violacea|RS|.  The original Luedde-violacea's were made with pulchra but also likely had some bellina in them.  So this cross is not exactly the same.   But it's still great to finally have this line of breeding in coerulea form.</p><p> </p></div> <div class = 'image_overlay'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_2095_640.jpg" alt="" title=""> </div> <div class = 'image_overlay'> <img src="https://www.sapphiredragonorchids.com/sites/default/files/IMG_2158_640.jpg" alt="" title=""> </div> <div class = 'ui-sortable-handle'><p>At some point I'm going to have to go back and try to reproduce a coerulea cross that has the same background as the Luedde-violaceas that have been the foundation of many of our novelty crosses.  That is going to be a whole different challenge. </p><p>Meanwhile I have lots of new crosses in the greenhouse and the lab.  Let's see if I can stay "focused" until that new batch of crosses starts blooming out and I have even more options to choose from.  ? It may be time to build a new greenhouse. </p><p>Have a happy holiday season and happy new year.  Looking forward to what 2020 will bring.</p><p>All the best, Rob</p></div> </div> <div class="field-name-field-category"> <a href="/index.php/category/article" hreflang="und">Article</a> </div> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <section> <ul class="commentlist"> </ul> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <h3 class="title slim"> Leave a Reply </h3> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=155&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="KzRQ7gEfbvxzoAevRDnxUE2TQF-Dc6UchirxVQFEXco"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Wed, 29 Apr 2020 16:09:21 +0000 Rob Shepherd 155 at https://sapphiredragonorchids.com A Decade of Chasing the Elusive Blue Phalaenopsis (IPA April 2012) https://sapphiredragonorchids.com/index.php/blog/decade-chasing-elusive-blue-phalaenopsis-ipa-april-2012 <span>A Decade of Chasing the Elusive Blue Phalaenopsis (IPA April 2012)</span> <div class="field field--name-field-images field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/2018-07/bluedecade_cover_400.jpg" width="400" height="396" alt="IPA journal" /> </div> </div> <span><span>Admin</span></span> <span>Mon, 04/30/2012 - 19:43</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong>Phalaenopsis Vol. 21(3) 2012</strong><br /> <em>April 2012</em></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">I'm extremely proud to announce the release of my first article written for Phalaenopsis, the journal of the International Phalaenopsis Alliance.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong>Contents:</strong><br /> A Decade of Chasing the Elusive Blue Phalaenopsis is a 9.5 page article featuring 18 full color photo's, now available in Phalaenopsis Vol. 21(3) 2012. This article cover's my history growing up in the orchid community, my hybridizing goals and progress over the first decade of my coerulea breeding program.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Please support our national and international orchid organizations whenever possible. If your not a member you can join the International Phalaenopsis Alliance and/or can also purchase copies of this volume directly from them at http://www.phal.org/.</span></span></span></p> <img alt="Rob" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="e4e181fc-d196-4207-9b6e-6b022dba00b1" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/BlueDecade_Rob_400.jpg" class="align-center" /></div> <div class="field-name-field-category"> <a href="/index.php/category/article" hreflang="und">Article</a> </div> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <section> <ul class="commentlist"> </ul> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <h3 class="title slim"> Leave a Reply </h3> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=137&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="jjnO2kYkKbWdP4KOL6hxoMXGBrhTN0iDgDYOV0EW-s8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Mon, 30 Apr 2012 16:43:52 +0000 Admin 137 at https://sapphiredragonorchids.com Hybridizers Notebook - Looking back at 2007 and forward to 2008 https://sapphiredragonorchids.com/index.php/blog/hybridizers-notebook-looking-back-2007-and-forward-2008 <span>Hybridizers Notebook - Looking back at 2007 and forward to 2008</span> <div class="field field--name-field-images field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/2020-05/equestris_cyano_4n_3381edited.jpg" width="640" height="276" alt="equestris" /> </div> </div> <span><span>Admin</span></span> <span>Sat, 01/05/2008 - 09:46</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p style="margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Happy New Year and thank you to our current patrons and friends that have supported us over the years. Welcome to our new friends that have starting to discover the exciting new breeding direction of coerulea <i>Phalaenopsis</i>. 2007 was a fun year for us as we've started to see some our work come to fruition with some first blooms that have validated our program. The greenhouse is full of new crosses that are spiking for the first time and the lab is full of even more exciting crosses that represent the leading edge in coerulea Phal breeding. 2007 was a great year and looking forward we can see that 2008 is going to be even greater.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:start; -webkit-text-stroke-width:0px; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-variant-ligatures:normal"><span style="font-variant-caps:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="widows:2"><span style="text-decoration-style:initial"><span style="text-decoration-color:initial"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Some of our first breeding experiments with <i>equestris var cyanochilus</i> are blooming out for the first time now and even more are spiking. So far we've had one significant success and we're closely watching the other crosses to see what they are going to reveal about how well the <i>cyanochilus</i> variety will carry the coerulea color into its progeny.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">The First Tetraploid <em><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Phal equestris var cyanochilus</span></em>:</span></b><br /> <span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Creating tetraploid lines of coerulea phal species has been a core part of strategy for improving the color of coerulea phal hybrids. The very first cross we were able to treat with colchicine was an <i>equestris var cyanochilus</i> cross between 'Martel's Blue' and 'ABC'.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:start; -webkit-text-stroke-width:0px; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-variant-ligatures:normal"><span style="font-variant-caps:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="widows:2"><span style="text-decoration-style:initial"><span style="text-decoration-color:initial"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">These seedlings came out of the lab early in 2007 and proved to be stronger growers than their untreated 2n siblings. This was contrary to the myth that colchicine treated seedlings are poor growers. Later in 2007 we did guard cell measurement survey of the 2n and potential 4n seedlings. Many of the potential 4n seedlings appeared to be tetraploid during that initial survey based on guard cell measurements and comparisons with the known 2n seedlings.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:start; -webkit-text-stroke-width:0px; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-variant-ligatures:normal"><span style="font-variant-caps:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="widows:2"><span style="text-decoration-style:initial"><span style="text-decoration-color:initial"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">In late Dec 2007 the first of the potential tetraploid seedlings bloomed out and we are very happy to announce that flower size almost certainly confirms the plant is a tetraploid. Later in 2008 we will be doing root tip gene counts on this plant to certify that it is a tetraploid.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">This is a significant advance and we will begin line breeding the 4n plants now and it should be much easier to increase the pigment density in a the tetraploid line. The intensity of the lip is already somewhat more intense than either 2n parent. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Left: <i>equestris var cyanochilus</i> 'Martel's Blue' 2n<br /> Right: <i>equestris var cyanochilus</i> ('Martel's Blue x 'ABC') 4n<br /> <br /> On the left is the diploid pod parent and on the right is its probable tetraploid progeny. The overall size and shape of the flower segments had improved considerably. The intensity of the pigments in the lip has increased some. In the greenhouse the difference is more obvious.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">The Norton Indigo Violaceas:</span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> <br /> As of this year, we now have 4 confirmed indigo Norton <i>violaceas</i> to work with. 'Sapphire's Navy' bloomed for the second time this year and both the color and intensity of the pigments improved. This plant has been used in 3 crosses now and is going to be one of the foundations of our coerulea breeding program. We've been successful in remaking <i>Dtps. Kenneth Schubert</i> with <i>violacea</i> 'Sapphire's Navy' and a good coerulea <i>pulcherrima</i>. This will be potentially give rise to a new generation of <i>Kenneth Schuberts</i> with even more intense color.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">We've also been able to self <i>violacea</i> 'Sapphire's Navy' this year and the resulting seedlings will be colchicine treated to create one of the first generations of tetraploid indigo <i>violaceas</i>. This the most significant accomplishment this year and will allow us to start breeding with large tetraploid whites once these seedlings bloom out.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:start; -webkit-text-stroke-width:0px; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-variant-ligatures:normal"><span style="font-variant-caps:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="widows:2"><span style="text-decoration-style:initial"><span style="text-decoration-color:initial"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">We currently have <i>Phal. Equalacea</i> and <i>Dtps. Purple Martin</i> in flask using <i>violacea</i> 'Sapphire's Navy'. These seedlings have been growing very quickly and we should be able to make some available to the public later in spring 2008. These crosses have a huge amount of potential.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"> </p> <p style="margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">New Breeding Lines:</span></b><br /> <span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">For over 5 years we've been planning out some new coerulea <i>Phalaenopsis</i> breeding lines. Many experiment crosses have been made and this year the first of some of our unique are starting to spike. In the months to come we will start announcing some new crosses and sharing the results of this research. This is an exciting time for us and we are now anxiously awaiting to see if our breeding theories are going prove out to be correct.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:start; -webkit-text-stroke-width:0px; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-variant-ligatures:normal"><span style="font-variant-caps:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="widows:2"><span style="text-decoration-style:initial"><span style="text-decoration-color:initial"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">The future of coerulea <i>Phalaenopsis</i> is bright and we are looking for to an exciting and rewarding 2008. We hope you have a great and are looking forward to seeing what you bloom out from our crosses.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:start; -webkit-text-stroke-width:0px; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-variant-ligatures:normal"><span style="font-variant-caps:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="widows:2"><span style="text-decoration-style:initial"><span style="text-decoration-color:initial"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Happy growing!</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt; margin-right:0in; margin-left:0in"> </p> </div> <div class="field-name-field-category"> <a href="/category/article" hreflang="und">Article</a> </div> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <section> <ul class="commentlist"> </ul> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <h3 class="title slim"> Leave a Reply </h3> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=135&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="fr1lzdGXCqsVa-XjmIAScNqspWAGARq0Tn_n87Ex5Cg"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Sat, 05 Jan 2008 07:46:04 +0000 Admin 135 at https://sapphiredragonorchids.com Hybridizers Notebook - Current Breeding Program as of July 2007 https://sapphiredragonorchids.com/index.php/blog/hybridizers-notebook-current-breeding-program-july-2007 <span>Hybridizers Notebook - Current Breeding Program as of July 2007</span> <div class="field field--name-field-images field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/2018-07/img_4237.jpg" width="3072" height="2048" alt="equalacea" /> </div> </div> <span><span>Admin</span></span> <span>Sun, 07/15/2007 - 09:40</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">This article was originally written for the HybridizersForum.com. If you are interested in orchid breeding, then it is a great online community to participate in. Some of the information in this article is a rehash of some previous things I have talked about and some of this is I am presenting for the first time to the public. As I will state several times, please keep in mind some of this changes on a frequent basis.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Sometime around 2000-2001 I decided I wanted to focus on breeding blue <i>Phalaenopsis</i>. (I was also the ridiculous grower that had <i>Masdevallias</i> growing in East Texas back in the 90s, so this seemed like a similar challenge!) So I started trying to get my hands on everything that was even close to blue and started doing lots of research. I've tried to talk with as many people as were willing to share their thoughts on blue phal breeding as possible. As many of you have probably realized they are few and far between. My current breeding program is the result of my own research, discussions with other hybridizers and the resulting conclusions I've come too. So you're reading the results of about 6-7 years of thought and research into all of this.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">For the purposes of discussion, I'm going to attempt to outline my current breeding goals and the planned breeding lines that I hope will help me accomplish them. This is an aggressive and multifaceted program. Keep in mind that I am 100% focused on blue breeding, so I can have a broader scope and be a little eclectic at the same time.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">None of what I'm writing takes into consideration flower pH, blue contribution from different pigments, much less co-pigmentation. At this early stage I am not trying to take that into consideration other than just being aware that there are multiple processes at working giving us the blue pigmentation in different coerulea phals. However further down the line, some of the experimental crosses may begin to help us better understand the mechanisms at work. I expect that we will learn as much form the crosses that don't work as we will learn from the crosses that do work. As we begin to better grasp of the mechanisms at play my approach will become more focused. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:13.5pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#9999cc">Goals: </span></span></span></b><br /> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Create high quality blue <i>Phalaenopsis</i> with better form, vigor and saturation/hue than currently available hybrids. The end goal is to create large/standard solid blue phals and multiflora solid blue phals; both with great form, color and vigor. Both dark blues and light/baby blues are part of these goals.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ul> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list .5in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">produce high quality breeding stock that can contribute to blue <i>Phalaenopsis</i> breeding long term</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list .5in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">produce saturated blue cultivars that rival the quality of currently available stock</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list .5in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">produce a multiflora line of blue <i>Phalaenopsis</i> suitable for pot plant culture with improved vigor and flower count</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list .5in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">produce a standard form blue phalaenopsis with great color and form</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list .5in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">produce a new range of colors including baby/sky blue, navy blue, indigo, violet and purple</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ul> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:13.5pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#9999cc">Breeding Lines:</span></span></span></b><br /> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">This is of course where it gets fun. I have five bigger picture areas of focus at this point. If I'm lucky I'm getting 10 of these crosses to take per year. So none of this is going particularly fast, but it should be noted that I have been able to complete 15 of planned coerulea Phalaenopsis crosses to date. Some of them are growing out in the greenhouse and some are currently in the lab.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#9999cc">1.) Line breed existing coerulea phal species and create polyploid cultivars during the process.</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">a.) <i>Phal. equestris var cyanochilus</i> line breeding - currently in progress. <br /> b.) <i>Phal. violacea var indigo</i> line breeding - the first crosses will hopefully take this year. Assuming they are successful, I'll start treating protocroms with colchicine. (The updated to this is we have two crosses in the lab at the replate stage using <i>violacea</i> 'Sapphire's Navy'. Both crosses were also treated with colchicine.)<br /> c.) Line breed other coerulea phal species that may happen to come up.<br /> d.) <i>Dts. pulcherrima var coerulea</i> - other growers are currently focusing on this. I'm not planning on doing an line breeding unless I just end up with two really good ones and can't help myself!</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#9999cc">2.) Coerulea on Coerulea Crosses</span></span></span></b><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> - </span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Utilize existing coerulea phal hybrids where possible to breed for improved color and shape. A couple of these types of crosses that are in the works are:</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">a.) <i>Dtps. Summer Rose (Kenneth Schubert x equestris)</i> I've got this growing out in the greenhouse and still in the lab using the equestris var cyanochilus.<br /> b.) <i>Phal. Equalacea (equestris x violacea)</i> I've got two of these in the lab with both forms of coerulea <i>violacea</i> on the <i>equestris var cyanochilus</i>.<br /> c.) <i>Dtps. Purple Martin (Kenneth Schubert x violacea)</i> As previously mentioned I have this in the lab made with the indigo <i>violacea</i>.<br /> d.) <i>Dtps Kenneth Schubert (violacea x pulcherrima)</i> This will need to be remade in the near future using the indigo <i>violacea</i>. I tried to get it to take several times last year and had no luck. I'll keep trying.<br /> e.) <i>Dtps. Purple Gem (pulcherrima x equestris)</i> I've been trying to get this take with the <i>cyanochilus</i> for several years now. One of these days I'll get this one done. <br /> f.) <i>Dtps Siam Treasure</i> crosses. I've been trying these for a few years. I have one seedling in flask of <i>Siam Treasure x equestris var cyanochilus</i>. Other than that I've had zero luck with this direction. If you've seen my Siam Treasure 'Blue' in its full glory, then you know why I keep trying to get this thing to breed.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#9999cc">3.) Leverage other phal species that appear to carry color well </span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">- I've done a great deal of research on this and have been trying to follow SE Asia breeding trends as well. <i>Phal. micholitzii</i> shows up in their blue breeding very frequently. <i>Phal. tetraspis</i> to a lesser amount. I've had a hunch for a very long time that <i>tetrapsis</i> would carry blue well. This was partially confirmed when <i>Tzu Chiang Lilac</i> was created. I've also seen some <i>Jennifer Palermo's</i> that were almost blue. I've got a <i>Jennifer Palermo</i> in flask now using a regular coerulea <i>violacea</i>. I'm trying to do that cross with indigo <i>violacea</i>.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">I have been trying to get crosses in place along this line since 2000. I now have a number of different crosses both in the lab and now in the greenhouse using different blues and <i>tetraspis</i>. The first of those should start blooming next year. I'm also planning on using <i>Tzu Chiang Tetralitz</i> as it does have better shape than <i>tetraspis</i> alone and has been proven to carry blue. <i>Phal Penang Jewel (Penang Violacea x violacea)</i> also appears to carry blue and I'm hoping to remake that cross using an indigo <i>violacea</i> in the near future that can then be used in further breeding. The information I've been able to get so far is that the current coerulea crosses using <i>Penang Jewel</i>, were made with an alba form.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Side Note: Tying into section 5 below, we were discussing this in theHybridizersForum.com and another breeder reminded me that he is trying to get some blue genetics into the crosses as early as possible. Thinking that direction it's very likely that I will take these crosses, put them on a white like aphrodite and then go back to blue. With this approach I will accomplish basically the same goal as what is outlined in section 5, but I won't have to take the time to make all of those crosses. Jennifer Palermo and Penang Violacea made with an indigo violacea would be used.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">I have two reasons for doing all of this. I believe <i>tetrapsis</i> will impart additional vigor and a tendency to bloom through out the year. It may just result in light blues. But I'm not completely against that either as long as they are more vigorous than the current coerulea phals. Also <i>micholitzii's</i> short stems just might balance out <i>pulcherrima's</i> long stems and it does tend to contribute better shape.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#9999cc">4.) Leverage 2N and 4N whites to improve shape</span></span></span></b><b> </b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">- this is going to be a very long term work in progress.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">a.) Coerulea lines need to be converted to 4N in order to do good 4N breeding. Many of us have already started on this.<br /> b.) 4N crosses with standard whites will be done once confirmed tetraploids are in place.<br /> c.) Blue on existing 2N Whites- I'm current trying to get crosses to take on <i>aphrodite</i> along with a few other folks. <i>Aphrodite x violacea</i> is the main target. I currently have <i>aphrodite x equestris var cyanochilus</i> 'ABC' growing in the greenhouse/. I doubt if these will be blue, but will be interesting to see what happens.<br /> d.) Custom whites for blue breeding - see next section.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#9999cc">5.) Create and use custom whites for blue breeding</span></span></span></b><b> </b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">- The last resort approach. Again this goes back to that gut instinct. This is not based on science and is really just a theory/personal opinion. So don't take any of this as the truth, its just one thing rolling through my head and so I'm working on this direction as one part of my breeding program.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">I have this feeling that a regular satin white like <i>aphrodite</i> is not going to carry blue as well as hoped. I believe other species can be introduced to increase our chances some. So I'm remaking some white crosses that are not currently available in order to create my own line of whites tailored to later breed with blues. If the straight blue on <i>aphrodite</i> crosses work, then this is a total waste of time. If they don't work or don't work as well as planned, then this could be worth the extra effort. So as I've said before, I prefer to hedge my bets and try a few things that go against current schools of thought.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">The following crosses are planned:</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">a.) <i>Phal. Formosa Star (aphrodite x micholitzii)</i><br /> b.) <i>Phal. Snow Twinkle (aphrodite x tetraspis)</i><br /> c.) <i>Phal. (aphrodite x Tzu Chiang Tetralitz)</i><br /> d.) <i>Phal. (Formosa Star x Snow Twinkle)</i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">In every case, <i>aphrodite </i>will be used as the pod parent to keep as much of its shape as possible. I've found photos of some of these crosses both ways and the crosses with <i>aphrodite</i> as the pod parent are superior in shape to the reverse cross. Once available, these whites would then be used with the best current blue phals.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Please keep in mind that all of this changes frequently. As new information is available, I'm am constantly adjusting my breeding program. So this information represents a snap shot of what I'm up to at this moment. During the time that I originally wrote this and now, I'm having second thoughts about even needing to deal with the section 5 part of this. So as I said, this is a living and constantly changing plan.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Keep and eye out for more updates and new crosses. As we start to bloom some of the current crosses out, we will start to release more of these. In many cases we don't get lots of seedlings and want to bloom some of them out to make sure we are able to select good cultivars for future breeding. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div class="field-name-field-category"> <a href="/index.php/category/article" hreflang="und">Article</a> </div> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <section> <ul class="commentlist"> </ul> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <h3 class="title slim"> Leave a Reply </h3> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=134&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="erRjJByygEJPKY3ZAwNqMgLOiegh4VoUDFqnJcr0WNo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Sun, 15 Jul 2007 06:40:04 +0000 Admin 134 at https://sapphiredragonorchids.com Hybridizers Notebook - Sept. 2006 Thoughts on Coerulea Phalaenopsis Breeding https://sapphiredragonorchids.com/index.php/blog/hybridizers-notebook-sept-2006-thoughts-coerulea-phalaenopsis-breeding <span>Hybridizers Notebook - Sept. 2006 Thoughts on Coerulea Phalaenopsis Breeding</span> <div class="field field--name-field-images field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/2018-07/equestris_cyano_martelsblue_1600.jpg" width="3072" height="2048" alt="MArtel&#039;s Blue" /> </div> </div> <span><span>Admin</span></span> <span>Tue, 09/12/2006 - 06:13</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">In this section I'm going to spend some time discussing my thoughts on breeding directions for blue P<em>halaenopsi</em>s. As there is currently very little available information, most of the information presented is based on my own observations and opinions. I have been growing and hybridizing orchids for over 20 years now and consider myself an advanced grower. But by no means am I an expert at plant physiology. For that reason most of my thoughts on this subject are not strictly based on scientifically proven methods, but my own observations. Orchid hybridizing is often part science and part good instincts.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">As our hybrids begin to bloom out we'll continue to build more information on breeding coerulea <em>Phalaenopsis</em>, hopefully proving out some of my own theories. As we have extra hybrids available, our catalogue will reflect the approaches described here.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">As I have time, I will start documenting my thoughts on my different hybridizing approaches. I would welcome any thoughts and suggestions regarding this subject. At the moment it appears that any commercial attempts at hybridizing blue <em>Phalaenopsis </em>are happening in secrecy. I hope in the future that this line of breeding will be mainstream and openly discussed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span style="font-size:13.5pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">September 12, 2006</span></span></i></b><br /> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Today a full year has passed since my original breeding plan was documented. Since that time extensive discussions with other hybridizers and new advancements have allowed me to refine my breeding program in some areas while increasing the scope of the program in other areas.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">The addition of the very saturated <i>Phal. violaceas</i> from the Norton/Ooi line, also known as the Indigo <i>violacea</i>, has opened the doors to remake many of the original coerulea primary hybrids with the hopes of creating an even stronger foundation for coerulea phal breeding. In July of this year I was lucky enough to bloom my first <i>violacea</i> from this line and have been attempting to integrate it into my breeding program. A second plant from one of these crosses is in spike with several others growing very strongly. By next year I hope to have 4-5 Indigo <i>violaceas</i> that can be used for breeding. I'm very pleased that at this time several crosses appear to have taken using <i>violacea</i> "Sapphire's Navy" as the pollen parent. IF the pods mature and we get good germination, I'll announce those crosses at that time.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Line breeding has and will continue to be a significant focus of my breeding program. One major goal at this time is working towards a true coerulea <i>Phal. equestris</i>. I am directly trying to improve the <i>cyanochilus</i> strain through line breeding and back crossing <i>cyanochilus</i> with other forms of <i>equestris</i> in the hopes of getting a flower with some blue in the sepals and petals. It will likely take several generations before a true coerulea <i>equestris</i> can be achieved.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">The following <i>equestris </i>crosses are currently in production in the lab:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ul> <li style="list-style-type:none"> <ul style="list-style-type:circle"> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list 1.0in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Phal. equestris var cyanochilus</span></span></i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> "Martel's Blue" X "ABC" - available early 07'</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list 1.0in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Phal. equestris var illocos</span></span></i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> X <i>Phal. equestris var cyanochilus</i> "Martel's Blue" - available early 07'</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list 1.0in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Phal. equestris</span></span></i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> ("Three Times a Lady" X "Blue Too") <i>X Phal. equestris var cyanochilus</i> "Martel's Blue" - available late 07' or early 08'</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Additional primary <i>equestris var cyanochilus</i> crosses currently in production:</span></span><br /> <i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">(Please note many of these crosses are extremely limited quantities and we may not begin releasing them until we have bloomed out the first batch of seedlings.)</span></span></i></span></span></span></span></p> <ul> <li style="list-style-type:none"> <ul style="list-style-type:circle"> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list 1.0in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Phal. Vesta (Phal. aphrodite</span></span></i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> X <i>Phal. equestris var cyanochilus</i> "Martel's Blue")</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list 1.0in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Phal. Taida Sunshine (Phal. equestris</span></span></i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> var <i>cyanochilus</i> "Martel's Blue" <i>X Phal. tetraspis var alba</i>)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list 1.0in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Dtps. Summer Rose (Dtps. Kenneth Schubert</span></span></i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> "Fangtastic" X <i>Phal. equestris var cyanochilus</i> "Martel's Blue")</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list 1.0in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Phal. Equalacea (Phal. equestris var cyanochilus</span></span></i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> "Martel's Blue" x <i>Phal. violacea</i> "Indigo Dragon")</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list 1.0in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Phal. Equalacea (Phal. equestris var cyanochilus</span></span></i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> "Martel's Blue" x <i>Phal. violacea</i> "Sapphire's Navy")</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list 1.0in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Dtps. Purple Gem (Phal. equestris var cyanochilus</span></span></i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> "Martel's Blue" x <i>Dts. pulcherrima</i> "Indigo Dragon")</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">On a smaller scale I have started some line breeding with coerulea Dts. pulcherrima. Several other breeders are also focused on improving the coerulea pulcherrimas, so this is not a huge focus of my own program.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">However the end goal is to create a good coerulea <i>Dtps. Purple Gem</i> with the hopes of eventually ending up with a coerulea Phal that is suitable for the pot plant industry. I'm currently using a standard <i>equestris var cyanochilus</i> with the coerulea <i>pulcherrimas</i> in the hopes that the coloration will carry over. In the future if a true coerulea <i>equestris </i>is created, this cross will be remade again using the best available <i>equestris</i> and <i>pulcherrima</i> available at that time.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> </div> <div class="field-name-field-category"> <a href="/index.php/category/article" hreflang="und">Article</a> </div> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <section> <ul class="commentlist"> </ul> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <h3 class="title slim"> Leave a Reply </h3> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=133&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="adp_Q1PDd27uAO5OKY7gdh3_nw5cvBsd4ASCZFiIUrQ"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Tue, 12 Sep 2006 03:13:25 +0000 Admin 133 at https://sapphiredragonorchids.com Overview of Current Coerulea Phalaenopsis Species and Hybrids, through June 2006 https://sapphiredragonorchids.com/index.php/blog/overview-current-coerulea-phalaenopsis-species-and-hybrids-through-june-2006 <span>Overview of Current Coerulea Phalaenopsis Species and Hybrids, through June 2006</span> <div class="field field--name-field-images field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/2018-07/img_0989.jpg" width="3072" height="2048" alt="violacea" /> </div> </div> <span><span>Admin</span></span> <span>Tue, 06/20/2006 - 17:36</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">The elusive blue orchid represents the very mystery and exclusivity that the first attracted so many to the world of orchid growing. Now that orchids are cheaply mass produced, it is that unique or rare orchid that challenges and drives serious enthusiasts to expand their collections. Perhaps in the days to come coerulea<i> Phalaenopsis</i> with be the next trend in modern <i>Phalaenopsis</i> hybrids.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">As of 2006 there is only a limited selection of commercially available coerulea phals. This discussion presents those varieties as well a few other current coerulea phals that will influence future generations. Many of the phals in this discussion are or have been available through commercial growers, all though often in very limited supply.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">For the purposes of starting a baseline, I have only included orchids where photo's are available of the actual coerulea forms. I am only using my own photos, so I have a few blank spots at the moment. If you have a photo of coerulea phal that is not represented here and would like to share, please send it my way. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong>Coerulea Species </strong><br /> At present there are only 3 species of <i>Phalaenopsis/Doritis</i> that have coerulea forms that are currently contributing to coerulea hybridizing. Several other species appear to have the capability of producing coerulea pigments and it is likely that more coerulea varieties will immerge as more species are line breed and mass produced. A small range of primary and complex coerulea hybrids have risen to the forefront and are commercially available. Over the next few years there will likely be an exponential increase in commercially available coerulea <i>Phalaenopsis</i>.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><img alt="violacea ver coerulea" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="1d01efd4-e725-47a1-950f-749806a812dd" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/violacea_coerulea2_thumb.jpg" class="align-left" />Phalaenopsis violacea var coerulea</i><br /> <i>Phal. violacea</i> is going to be a very important component of most future blue phal hybrids. It is currently the only species in the genus <i>Phalaenopsis</i> that has a combination of pigments that can specifically express the color blue without a change in flower pH.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Several growers are currently doing line breeding of very select cultivars and will ultimately be responsible for creating superior cultivars that can be used in reproducing current hybrids with higher quality flowers. Third and fourth generation selective line breeding of <i>Phal. violacea</i> is now becoming available.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><img alt="violacea var indigo" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="28479bad-a75c-45bf-9018-648a2e7808dd" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/violacea_SapphiresNavy3_thumb_0.jpg" class="align-left" />The Norton/Ooi line of coerulea <i>violaceas</i> stand to significantly improve the quality of future coerulea hybrids. This line originated from a group of imported plants with intense magenta pigmentation. Chance line breeding resulted in the coerulea forms and the Norton's then line breed those plants to create this new line. We have heard this line affectionately called the Indigo <i>violacea</i>. We are anxiously awaiting to see the results of future breeding with this line.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><img alt="equestris var cyanochilus" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="1f8e89bb-1700-4f40-aca9-c6802e6dd308" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/equestris_cyano_1_Thumb.jpg" class="align-left" />Phalaenopsis equestris var cyanochilus</i><br /> The variety <i>cyanochilus</i> is relatively new to the coerulea phalaenopsis scene. It is extremely difficult to obtain and is not commercially available. The blue is only expressed in the lip and is very faint. The process behind the coloration is currently unknown. At present there are very few documented hybrids using this variety and it is unknown how well it is going to breed with other coerulea phals.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">I've been lucky enough to acquire three different cultivars over the last couple of years and plan to start line breeding after I grow out the first round of crosses. It is my hope that a more intense coloration can be achieved. I plan on making the first generation commercially available by end of 2006. They will likely be similar to the cultivar presented here.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><img alt="pulcherrima var coerulea" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="cda25b3b-972f-4502-a85e-24cbbdfa86d8" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/pulcherrima_coerulea3_thumb.jpg" class="align-left" />Dorits pulcherrima var coerulea</i><br /> <i>Dts. pulcherrima</i> is currently equally as important as<i> violacea</i> in blue hybrids. It is readily available and the quality of the available plants seems to be increasing each year. It has been successfully used in more hybrids than <i>violacea</i> and when combined with other phals imparts some hybrid vigor which is going to be important for blue hybrids to become commercially viable. (Most coerulea phals are inherently more difficult to grow.)</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Again selective line breeding should ultimately result in more intensely colored flowers.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong>Primary Hybrids </strong><br /> A few coerulea primary hybrids are currently available and we believe that over the next few years many more are going to be made available. This is the next logical step in creating a foundation of stable coerulea hybrids.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><img alt="Kenneth Schubert" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="dcec0d9f-5592-45ec-a3bc-bbe0cff04c7b" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/KennethSchubert_Fangtastic_thumb.jpg" class="align-left" />Dtps. Kenneth Schubert</i><br /> <i>(P. violacea x Dor. pulcherrima)</i><br /> Registered on 1.1.1963 by Clarelen.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Some of the higher quality <i>Kenneth Schubert</i> generally exhibit a blue color that is more intense than either of the parents. This indicated that combining the genes that produce blue in phals will result in increased blue coloration greater than what could be achieved individually.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><img alt="Siam Treasure" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="8903600a-4d2b-408e-a6f7-9fe27899de75" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Siam_Treasure_Blue2_thumb.jpg" class="align-left" />Dtps. Siam Treasure</i><br /> <i>(P. lowii x Dor. pulcherrima)</i><br /> Registered on 10.14.1997 by Lusup-anan.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">The coerulea form of <i>Siam Treasure </i>is remarkably blue in coloration given the pink tinge of most <i>Phal. lowii.</i> I've seen several remakes of this cross and they are generally a consistent blue/violet color.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">The<i> lowii</i> influence gives these orchids a flatter and rounder shape, a trait that may make Siam Treasure very useful in future breeding.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong>Complex Hybrids</strong><br /> A few complex hybrids have recently appeared through commercial venues. While doing some research on registered hybrids, I have found a few more that are likely coerulea phals. However many of them are not available and no photos are available. At the very least all of these hybrids could be recreated using all coreulea parents. Again for the purposes of discussing current coerulea phals, only photographed complex coerulea hybrids are listed in this article.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><img alt="Purple Martin" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="778d8d54-f06f-45ab-ae64-19e82991f83d" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/PurpleMartin_KS_2_thumb.jpg" class="align-left" />Dtps. Purple Martin<br /> (Dtps. Kenneth Schubert x P. violacea)</i><br /> Registered on 1.1.1989 by Wallbrunn.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">To date this is the most intense coerulea <i>Phalaenopsis</i> crosses available. This grex represents the best that blue phal breeding currently has to offer. I would love to see this cross made with the Norton's <i>violaceas</i>.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">This photo is of the cultivar 'KS' and it is currently the most intensely colored clone available. Some of the other cultivars have a more powder blue color with a shape more like <i>violacea</i>.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><img alt="Fire Cracker" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="6be19e18-5ead-46de-8e99-89fb70cffc59" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/FireCracker_BlueMartini2_thumb.jpg" class="align-left" />Dtps. Fire Cracker<br /> (Dtps. Red Coral x Dor. pulcherrima)</i><br /> Registered on 1.1.1966 by Beard.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">There are two good coerulea cultivars of this cross floating around. It is very unlikely that a coerulea Red Coral was used to make this cross and it suggests that a good coerulea <i>pulcherrima</i> may be very effective at creating coerulea phals by breeding with standard lavender and magenta flowers.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">The photo is of the cultivar "Blue Martini".</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"> </p> </div> <div class="field-name-field-category"> <a href="/index.php/category/article" hreflang="und">Article</a> </div> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <section> <ul class="commentlist"> </ul> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <h3 class="title slim"> Leave a Reply </h3> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=136&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="pW0ZCGgT0OQDUyjfk-qTY-H7-_SPjqMTchJb9X71Akk"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Tue, 20 Jun 2006 14:36:25 +0000 Admin 136 at https://sapphiredragonorchids.com Hybridizers Notebook - Sept. 2005 Thoughts on Coerulea Phalaenopsis Breeding https://sapphiredragonorchids.com/index.php/blog/hybridizers-notebook-sept-2005-thoughts-coerulea-phalaenopsis-breeding <span>Hybridizers Notebook - Sept. 2005 Thoughts on Coerulea Phalaenopsis Breeding</span> <div class="field field--name-field-images field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/2018-07/img_0905.jpg" width="1544" height="1500" alt="Image 1." /> </div> </div> <span><span>Admin</span></span> <span>Mon, 09/12/2005 - 07:41</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Breeding for blue in <em>Phalaenopsis</em> is a particularly difficult prospect in that the pigments traditionally associated with blue do not exist in <em>Phalaenopsis</em>. To further complicate the matter, neither condition that results in blue coloration in phals is a particularly dominate trait. Pigment combining techniques such as using yellow pigments to enhance the color of a red orchid is highly effective in creating highly saturated red <em>Phalaenopsis</em> hybrids but will not work in this situation. A great deal can be learned from the techniques that have worked with red phals, but new approaches must be identified in order to succeed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">As with any breeding program that is focusing on a recessive or uncommon trait, it is extremely important to identify the components that create the desired trait and breed selected plants in a manner that will lead to dominance of that trait. Traditionally this is accomplished through selective line breeding and outcrossing to similar plants through multiple generations. Given that pigment combination in the traditional sense will not work, it is unrealistic to think that there is going to be some breakthrough approach that will quickly lead to an intense blue.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">With all of this in mind my current breeding program is focused into a three pronged approach:</span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol> <li style="list-style-type:none"> <ol> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list 1.0in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">coerulea to coerulea hybrids</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list 1.0in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">coerulea line breeding</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:list 1.0in"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">coerulea to pigment neutral hybrids</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol> </li> </ol> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">The immediate goal of my current hybridizing program is to create a set of hybrids utilizing coerulea and pigment neutral <em>Phalaenopsis</em> that can serve as a foundation for creating future blue <em>Phalaenopsis</em>. It is very important to note that many of the first hybrids will not express the blue/violet pigmentation currently associated with blue <em>Phalaenopsis</em>.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0in 0in 8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">The cross of <em>Timothy Christopher</em> x <em>pulcherrima var coerulea</em> is such an example. (</span></span><i><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">image 1.</span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">)For this reason a long term hybridizing program must be planned out with the final goal of creating the elusive blue <em>Phalaenopsis</em> and visual cues will not always be good indicators of success or failure.</span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div class="field-name-field-category"> <a href="/index.php/category/article" hreflang="und">Article</a> </div> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <section> <ul class="commentlist"> </ul> <div class="spacer lg"></div> <h3 class="title slim"> Leave a Reply </h3> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=132&amp;2=comment&amp;3=comment" token="gTCEJizV7DWgsOolMviGK_yn59qAj5im10KI1NSVj5g"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Mon, 12 Sep 2005 04:41:50 +0000 Admin 132 at https://sapphiredragonorchids.com